By Richard J. D. Tilley
- Provides an intensive figuring out of the chemistry and physics of defects, allowing the reader to control them within the engineering of fabrics.
- Reinforces theoretical options by way of putting emphasis on actual global methods and purposes.
- Includes types of end-of-chapter difficulties: a number of selection (to try out wisdom of phrases and rules) and extra large routines and calculations (to construct talents and understanding).
- Supplementary fabric on crystallography and band constitution are integrated in separate appendices.
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Additional resources for Defects in solids
The creation of 0 ) requires the inclusion of two Ca sites and two two new B cation sites (2CrTi anion sites: 0 þ 5OO þ VO2† Cr2 O3 (CaTiO3 ) À! 12 COMBINATIONS OF POINT DEFECTS IN PURE MATERIALS There is no obvious reason why only one defect type should occur in a crystal, and several different species would be expected to be present. However, the formation energy of each defect type is different, and it is often a reasonable approximation to assume that only one or a small number of defect types will dominate the chemical and physical properties of the solid.
It was realized at an early stage that a comparison of the theoretical and measured density of a solid can be used to determine the notional species of point defect present. The general procedure is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the composition of the solid. Measure the density. Measure the unit cell parameters. Calculate the theoretical density for alternative point defect populations. Compare the theoretical and experimental densities to see which point defect model best ﬁts the data. The method can be illustrated by reference to a classical 1933 study of the defects present in wu¨stite, iron monoxide.
A further possibility is that the hole may be lightly bound to an Ni2þ ion to give a defect complex that could be written (NiNi þ h†). All of these descriptions are valid. The one adopted would be the one most consistent with the measured properties of the solid. 5 Cadmium Oxide Cadmium oxide, CdO, like nickel oxide, also adopts the sodium chloride structure (Fig. 14). However, unlike nickel oxide, this compound can be made to contain more metal than oxygen. The defects that cause this metal excess are usually considered to be interstitial Cd atoms or ions.