Dams and disease : ecological design and health impacts of by William Jobin

By William Jobin

A advisor to aid planners and engineers to the improvment of destiny water initiatives. The earlier century of worldwide event on water tasks is gifted because the foundation for growing new techniques. First-hand analyses, together with 35 case experiences from 25 international locations, painting the impression of politicians, biologists, engineers, computing device versions and physicians at the astounding successes and screw ups of the developers of canals and dams. via drawing in this event, the writer outlines equipment for assessing, predicting and combating significant water-associated illnesses round huge dams, canals and irrigation structures.

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Additional info for Dams and disease : ecological design and health impacts of large dams, canals, and irrigation systems

Example text

The following section is an outline of the procedures which should be followed in a complete pre-construction health assessment, with detail given on some items. 1 Information collection The collection of information at the beginning of a health impact assessment should include a continuous collection of published and informal reports on health and aquatic ecology for tropical areas, filed geographically for easy retrieval when a project site is identified. Review of existing site information Literature searches should begin at libraries of international agencies in their headquarters and regional offices, both through formal search and computer retrieval procedures as well as consultation with experts responsible for the country or region involved.

The depth of light penetration can be approximated by the Secchi disk measurement, and the Secchi disk measurement can be estimated from the phosphorus nutrient loading on the waterbody. This phosphorus loading factor has other uses related to snail population predictions, including the amount of food in the habitat, as measured by chlorophyll concentrations, and the amount of fish predation to be expected on the small snails. 2 Schematic diagram of mixing model for small reservoirs. This model was used for analysis of salt and nutrient dispersion in proposed reservoirs for the Jubba River in Somalia, modelling the narrow sections as uniform or plug-flow sections, and the wider, central sections of the reservoir as a completely mixed chamber.

Unfortunately rainfall may also be affected, following unknown patterns. This may be responsible for the increasing severity of droughts in Africa. As many of the water-associated diseases are transmitted through tropical insects or snails, the north-south distribution of which is limited by low temperatures, it is possible that global warming may increase this latitudinal distribution of the disease transmitters. Increased mean temperatures may also extend the seasonal transmission periods for these diseases in tropical mountains or other places where they are at present limited by cool seasons.

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