Crystallography: An Introduction by Walter Borchardt-Ott (auth.)

By Walter Borchardt-Ott (auth.)

As a self-study advisor, direction primer or educating reduction, Borchardt-Ott's Crystallography is the precise textbook for college students and academics alike. actually, it may be utilized by crystallographers, chemists, mineralogists, geologists and physicists. in line with the author's greater than 25 years of educating adventure, the publication has a variety of line drawings designed in particular for the textual content and a lot of workouts - with recommendations - on the finish of every bankruptcy. This third version is the interpretation of the 7th German variation with new chapters keen on crystal chemistry and x-ray diffraction methods.

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A crystal face contains a twodimensionally periodic array of atoms. The relationship between crystal structure and morphology may be summarized thus: ! (a) Every crystal face lies parallel to a set of lattice planes; parallel crystal faces correspond to the same set of planes. (b) Every crystal edge is parallel to a set of lattice lines. The reverse conclusions must, however, certainly not be drawn, since a crystal will have a very large number of lattice planes and lines, and generally only a few edges and faces.

1 nm. If a row of spheres with a radius of 1 Å is made, these will be 50,000,000 of them per centimeter! 25 26 4 Crystal Structure Fig. 5 The description of lines and planes in a unit cell by means of coordinates x,y,z where m is the mass of the atoms in the unit cell and V is the volume of the cell. 52 g cm−3 . 573 · 10−24 In a structure determination, this operation is carried out in reverse: from the measured density, the number of formula units per cell is estimated. Using the values (hkl) and [uvw] we have so far only described the orientations of sets of planes and lines.

1 The basis is I− : 0,0,0; Cs+ : 12 , 12 , 12 . In Fig. 4a, a unit cell is shown as a perspective picture, with the relative sizes of the ions indicated. For more complex structures, this method of illustration is less useful, as it prevents the positions of atoms from being clearly seen. Consequently, it is more usual merely to indicate the centers of gravity of the atoms, as in Fig. 4b. 4c shows the same structure represented as a parallel projection on one cube face. An important quantity for any structure is Z, the number of chemical formula units per unit cell.

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