By Leo Mandelkern
Mandelkern L. Crystallization of polymers (CUP Press, 2002)(ISBN 0511061064)(449s)
Read or Download Crystallization of polymers. Volume 1, Equilibrium concepts PDF
Best crystallography books
Incredible examine starts with basics of x-ray diffraction conception utilizing Fourier transforms, then applies normal effects to numerous atomic buildings, amorphous our bodies, crystals and imperfect crystals. undemanding legislation of X-ray diffraction on crystals keep on with as targeted case. hugely worthy for solid-state physicists, metallographers, chemists and biologists.
X-ray crystallography presents us with the main actual photo we will be able to get of atomic and molecular buildings in crystals. It offers a troublesome bedrock of structural ends up in chemistry and in mineralogy. In biology, the place the buildings aren't totally crystalline, it might probably nonetheless supply beneficial effects and, certainly, the effect the following has been progressive.
Crystallography is without doubt one of the so much multidisciplinary sciences, with roots in fields as assorted as arithmetic, physics, chemistry, biology, fabrics technological know-how, computation and earth and planetary technological know-how. The structural wisdom won from crystallography has been instrumental in buying new degrees of figuring out in different clinical parts.
During this thesis Johanna Bruckner stories the invention of the lyotropic counterpart of the thermotropic SmC* section, which has develop into well-known because the simply spontaneously polarized, ferroelectric fluid in nature. via polarizing optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electro-optic experiments she firmly establishes features of the constitution of the radical lyotropic liquid crystalline part and elucidates its interesting homes, between them a stated polar electro-optic impression, analogous to the ferroelectric switching of its thermotropic counterpart.
Extra resources for Crystallization of polymers. Volume 1, Equilibrium concepts
9 Plot of left-hand side of Eq. 6) against Vrij (11)) T for Tm0 = 418 K. (From Flory and Fig. 10 Plot of left-hand side of Eq. 6) against Vrij (11)) T for Tm0 = 419 K. (From Flory and This difference, of about 4 K, is signiﬁcant in many uses of Tm0 . The direct demonstration and observation of Tm0 for any polymer is a very difﬁcult matter. (22–27) The slope and intercept of the straight line in Fig. 9, when analyzed according to Eq. 2 cal deg mol−1 . The straight line in Fig. 10 yields similar results for these parameters.
15) In this ﬁgure the vertical straight lines represent the ordered sequence conformation. For the n-alkanes it is all trans planar zigzag. For other oligimers it could very well represent some type of helical conformation. In the crystalline state depicted, the molecules are placed end-to-end so that the terminal groups are juxtaposed in successive layers of the lattice. The end-groups are paired, one to another, so that the sequence of chain units from one molecule to the next is perpetuated through successive layers of the lattice.
The lamellar habit is typical of crystallites formed by homopolymers. Such structures are central to the understanding of molecular morphology and properties. Of particular interest and importance is the nature of the interphase between the crystalline and noncrystalline regions. This problem will be discussed in detail in Volume 3. When homopolymers are crystallized from very dilute solutions, either lozenge-shaped platelets or crystals that possess a dendritic habit are formed. Some typical electron micrographs of the crystals precipitated from dilute solution are shown in Figs.