Comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-Products by Yang Shan

By Yang Shan

Comprehensive usage of Citrus By-products provides finished wisdom and data at the improvement and usage of citrus by-products, together with the categories, instruction, and backbone in their major useful parts. As essentially the most renowned culmination on the earth, the processing of citrus end result produces loads of citrus peel, a chief derivative. present remedies of citrus peel pollute the surroundings and waste assets so green strategies are sought.

This ebook displays learn, tendencies and attitudes within the box, featuring a large evaluate together with extraction methods for practical elements; isolation and structural id; synthesis of recent compounds; and the examine and improvement of citrus by-products, their biodegradable transformation, and processing gear. This important reference ebook can be utilized by way of scientists, students, and scholars engaged on citrus, dietitians and nutritionists, citrus processing businesses, and farmers from cooperative organisations concerning citrus processing.

  • Offers a entire presentation of the sensible elements in citrus by-products and their utilization
  • Illustrates the selection tools of, and extraction methods for, useful elements, in addition to the isolation, id, and synthesis of latest compounds
  • Reviews the examine and improvement of citrus by-products, their biodegradable transformation, and processing equipment
  • Provides a invaluable reference for scientists, students, and scholars engaged on citrus, dietitians and nutritionists, citrus processing agencies, and farmers from cooperative businesses relating to citrus processing

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Additional resources for Comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-Products

Sample text

EXTRACTION PROCESS OF SYNEPHRINE FROM CITRUS PEEL p-Synephrine is present in most citrus fruits, with a higher content observed especially in young fruits. However, p-synephrine content reveals a decreasing trend as the fruits ripen. Meanwhile, the difference in the p-synephrine content is also due to the different varieties. 8 mg/g in dried orange peel. At present the extraction methods of synephrine reported in the literature include boiling, methanoleethanol diluted solution or weak acid solution (diluted hydrochloric acid or diluted phosphoric acid) extraction, percolation extraction, refluxing extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction methods.

5 Refining Orange oil contains free fatty acids, phosphates, pigments, limonoids, and hesperidin. Crude oil is red with a bitter taste and special odor. Therefore, it must be refined through saponification and bleaching before consumption. The technological process includes refining of the crude oil by alkali treatment, saponification and precipitation, filtration under reduced pressure, drying of essential oil, vacuum deodorization, and bleaching. 1. Refining of crude oil by alkali treatment The crude oil is heated with steam, and NaOH is added to this oil according to the content of free acids.

Limonene (the major component of terpene olefins) is unstable in light and heat; therefore, it is easily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to produce the odor compound carvone, which results in lower-quality essential oil. At present, distillation and solvent methods are the major condensation processes. The distillation method can facilitate separation based on the different boiling points of the essential oil components. The solvent method allows the separation of terpene olefins and other compounds based on differences in their solubility in various solvents.

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