Comparative Structure and Evolution of Cerebral Cortex, Part by Wilhelmus J. A. J. Smeets (auth.), Edward G. Jones, Alan

By Wilhelmus J. A. J. Smeets (auth.), Edward G. Jones, Alan Peters (eds.)

The cerebral cortex, in particular that half typically precise "neocortex," is without doubt one of the hallmarks of mammalian evolution and reaches its maximum dimension, really talking, and its widest structural range within the human mind. The evolution of this constitution, as impressive for the large numbers of neurons that it includes as for the diversity of behaviors that it controls, has been of abiding curiosity to many generations of neuroscientists. but few theories of cortical evo­ lution were proposed and none has stood the try out of time. specifically, no idea has been profitable in bridging the evolutionary hole that looks to exist among the pallium of nonmammalian vertebrates and the neocortex of mam­ mals. surely this stems largely from the swift divergence of non­ mammalian and mammalian types and the inability of latest species whose telencephalic wall will be visible as having transitional features. The mono­ treme cortex, for instance, is definitely mammalian in association and that of no residing reptile comes just about comparable to it. but anatomists comparable to Ramon y Cajal, on studying the finer information of cortical constitution, have been struck by means of the similarities in neuronal shape, really of the pyramidal cells, and their predisposition to laminar alignment shared through representatives of all vertebrate classes.

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10), and teleosts (Figs. 11-13) the eversion is accompanied by a marked thickening of the dorsal portions of the side walls. It is important to note that due to the eversion, lateral ventricles in the proper sense are entirely lacking in the actinopterygian hemispheres. The amount of outward bending of the telencephalic wall differs among the various actinopterygian groups. In chondrosteans (Fig. 9) and in salmonid teleosts (Fig. 11) the eversion is only slight, but in polypteriforms (Fig. 8), the bowfin EVAGINATION EVERSION Figure 1.

Because the telencephalon of the polypteriform fishes has several typical features in common with that of the chondrosteans, holosteans, and teleosts, its structure will be dealt with in the present chapter. R. NIEUWENHUYS and J. MEEK • Department of Anatomy and Embryology, University of Nijmegen, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 31 32 CHAPTER 2 The present chapter is mainly based on examination of the following species: the reed fish Erpetaichthys calabaricus, a representative of the polypteriform fishes; the shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platarynchus, a typical chondrostean; the bowfin Amia calva, a species belonging to the Holostei; and three teleosts: the trout Salma gairdneri, the goldfish Carassius carassius, and the osteoglossomorph Xenamystis nigri.

The stria medullaris, which is the most important connection of the habenular ganglion, is considerably smaller than the basal forebrain bundle and the pallial tract. Although the exact site of origin of its fibers cannot be determined in normal material, it may be assumed that the stria medullaris collects its fibers from the caudal parts of both pallium and subpallium (Figs. 4, 7, 13). , 1983), but none of these components have been confirmed experimentally. 4. Functional Correlations and Concluding Remarks In the previous sections, a brief review of the structural organization of the telencephalon of cartilaginous fishes has been presented.

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