Comparative Biochemistry. A Comprehensive Treatise by marcel florkin

By marcel florkin

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2. Utilization of Endogenous Reserves The reserve food supply of seeds usually consists predominantly of carbohydrates or fats. In many seeds proteins also serve as an important 32 BARBARA. Ε . WRIGHT fraction of the storage materials. A great variety of hydrolytic enzymes are present which degrade proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Gradients of proteinases and peptidases are found in seeds, and proteolytic, amyloclastic, and lipolytic activities increase during germination. The nature of the reserve materials in a seed and the sequence in which they are used in part determines the ratio of the volume of C 0 2 evolved to the volume of 0 2 during germination.

Discoideum. In the slime mold the C-6/C-1 ratio is a function of (a) the relative activity of the Embden-Meyerhof ( E M ) and hexose monophosphate shunt pathways, and (b) the extent to which the triose isomerase reaction is limiting, depending upon the intensity of the E M pathway. Both (a) and (b) are affected by the concentration of exoge­ nous glucose, which therefore influences the C-6/C-1 ratio at any stage of differentiation. However, both the quantitative and qualitative effects of exogenous glucose on the ratio are functions also of the stage of differentiation.

Various lines of indirect evidence, some of which will be discussed below, have suggested that the ectoderm may develop a stronger mitochondrial activity than the entomesodermal region. Changes in the relative number of Nile blue sulfate-stainable granules (relative mito­ chondrial density, R M D ) during early cleavage and blastula stages are shown in the left-hand curve of Fig. 22. The right-hand curve gives similar data for the blastula and young gastrula stages. In these experi­ ments, sample sectors for counting were chosen by chance with regard to polarity of the egg.

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