By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson
Following an advent to coevolutionary ideas, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite ways for trying out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the effect of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a various assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on crops, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are robust types for the examine of coevolution simply because they're effortless to monitor, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their whole lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're excellent to producing an artificial review of coevolution—and, thereby, provide a thrilling framework for integrating the ideas of coadaptation and codiversification.
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Additional info for Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History
2013). Transmission of permanent parasites, such as lice, is much more straightforward (see chapter 7). It occurs mainly during periods of direct contact between hosts, such as that between parent hosts and their offspring, or between mated individuals (Marshall 1981a). However, some lice are capable of long-distance phoretic dispersal on parasitic flies (see chapter 7 and plate 5). 36 chapt e r t wo Community ecology Communities of lice vary considerably in diversity among host groups. Species richness ranges from one species of louse per host, as in the case of elephants and ostriches, to more than a dozen species, as in the case of tinamous (Neotropical terrestrial birds).
The ischnoceran chicken louse Cuclotogaster heterographus causes severe restlessness and debility (Kim et al. 1973), and it can kill chicks outright (Loomis 1978). Poultry experimentally co-infested with four species of lice showed hematological changes (Prelezov et al. 2002) and histological changes in the skin, muscle, spleen, liver, lungs, kidneys, and small intestine, followed by the death of some birds (Prelezov et al. 2006). Lice have also been shown to have negative effects on turkeys and other domesticated fowl, as well as pet birds like parrots (Durden and Lloyd 2009).
2014) reported gene expression data consistent with the possibility that the immune systems of head lice are better at fighting early stages of infection with B. quintana; however, the specifics of the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. One thing is certain: should head lice start widely vectoring pathogens at some point, the public health implications could be frightening. Some data already suggest that head lice are capable of vectoring B. quintana and other pathogens under some circumstances, but the subject is controversial (Veracx and Raoult 2012; Bonilla et al.