By Robert M. Strieter, Steven L. Kunkel, Theodore Standiford
Discusses the position of chemokines in mediating leukocyte trafficking, angiogenesis, tumor telephone metastasis, host safety, trauma-induced lung damage, and the development of AIDS within the lung. stories cytokines as normal brokers for modulating ailments that have an effect on the lung
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Additional info for Chemokines in the Lung
Bokoch GM. Chemoattractant signaling and leukocyte activation. Blood 1995; 86: 1649–1660. 14. Murphy PM. The molecular biology of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 1994; 12:593–633. 15. Wu D, LaRosa GJ, Simon MI. G–protein-coupled signal transduction pathways for interleukin-8. Science 1993; 261:101–103. 16. Jiang H, Kuang Y, Wu Y, Smrcka A, Simon MI, Wu D.
The basophil responses to MCP-1 and MCP-4 are biphasic over a wide range of chemokine concentrations (108). It was demonstrated that responses to low concentrations of MCP-1 and high concentration of MCP-4 were suppressed by blocking anti-CCR2 mAb. Conversely, responses to low concentration of MCP4 and high concentrations of MCP-1 were suppressed by treatment with mAb to CCR3, suggesting that both CCR2 and CCR3 are involved in MCP-1 and MCP4–induced chemotaxis, with CCR2 rendering basophils responsive to low concentrations of MCP-1 and high concentrations of MCP-4 in chemotaxis, and CCR3 to high concentrations of MCP-1 and low concentrations of MCP-4.
This is exactly what has been observed for most of the chemokines and chemokine receptors yet studied. However, the importance of each chemokine and chemokine receptor for a particular immune response in vivo may be different, even though they may exhibit similar behaviors at the level of an isolated cell population studied in vitro. Thus, despite the promiscuity of chemokine–receptor interactions and the redundancy of receptor expression, a model has emerged in which each leukocyte subtype has its own dominant mediators in trafﬁcking during an immune response, such as CXCR1 and CXCR2 for neutrophils, CCR2 for macrophages, CCR6 for immature dendritic cells, CCR7 for mature dendritic cells and naı¨ve lymphocytes, CXCR5 for B cells, and CCR2 and CXCR3 for effector Th1 cells.