By R Ingram, P Gallagher
Chemistry Made transparent is popular as a center GCSE Chemistry textual content, or because the Chemistry section of a balanced technology path. scholars could be capable of finding issues out speedy and simply one of the simplified motives. * each one double-page unfold bargains with a special subject and contains questions * examination point questions on the finish of every bankruptcy * Line drawings and pictures spotlight the real-life purposes of chemistry Chemistry Made transparent is usually urged by way of college of Cambridge foreign Examinations for IGCSE Chemistry.
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Extra info for Chemistry Made Clear - GCSE Edition
It is called an ionic bond, or sometimes an electrovalent bond. stable ions with full shells How solid sodium chloride is formed When sodium reacts with chlorine, billions of sodium and chloride ions form, and are attracted to each other. But the ions do not stay in pairs. Instead, they cluster together, so that each ion is surrounded by six ions of opposite charge. They are held together by strong ionic bonds. ) The pattern grows until a giant structure of ions is formed. It contains equal numbers of sodium and chloride ions.
The tight packing causes outer electrons to get separated from their atoms, and the result is a lattice of ions in a sea of electrons. ;:• I• rf' ~ The copper ions are held together by their attraction to the electrons between them. ) Their properties t The regular arrangement of ions results in a crystal of copper. This picture shows copper magnified 100 times. The dark lines are the crystal edges. A piece of copper wire contains millions of tiny crystals joined together. Metals have these properties: 1 They are good conductors of electricity, because the free electrons can move through the lattice, carrying charge.
Why are the noble gas atoms unreactive? Explain why all other atoms are reactive. Draw a diagram to show how a sodium atom obtains a full outer shell. 5 Explain why the sodium ion has a charge of + 1. 1 2 3 4 6 Draw a diagram to show how a chlorine atom can obtain a full outer shell. 7 Write down the symbol for a chloride ion. Why does this ion have a charge of -1? 8 Explain what an ion is, in your own words. 9 Why do noble gas atoms not form ions? 2 The ionic bond The reaction between sodium and chlorine As you saw on the last page, a sodium atom can lose one electron, and a chlorine atom can gain one, to obtain full outer shells.