Boron Rich Solids: Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, by Nina Orlovskaya, Mykola Lugovy

By Nina Orlovskaya, Mykola Lugovy

The aim of this publication is to debate the present prestige of study and improvement of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel organic and chemical sensors made from stiff and lightweight boron-rich solids are very fascinating and effective for purposes in clinical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism brokers. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites convey very good oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic motor vehicle functions. Boron-rich solids also are promising applicants for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is one other vitally important program of boron-rich solids, considering the fact that such a lot of them show very excessive hardness, which makes them ideal applicants with excessive resistance to ballistic influence. the next topical components are provided: •boron-rich solids: technology and expertise; •synthesis and sintering ideas of boron wealthy solids; •microcantilever sensors; •screening of the potential boron-based thermoelectric conversion fabrics; •ultra-high temperature ZrB2 and HfB2 dependent composites •magnetic, shipping and high-pressure houses of boron-rich solids; •restrictions of the sensor dimensions for chemical detection; •armor

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The calculations of cantilever sensitivity using (14) have also shown that, if the sensitivity of the steel-based microcantilever is taken as 1, the replacement of steel with B4C ceramics will increase the sensitivity by a factor of about seven. ALL CERAMIC CANTILEVER SENSORS 4. Conclusions 3 25 Black line y=h1 Gray line y=h lg( i/ 0) As a result of our study, a model has 2 been developed which allows an 15 V estimation of the dimensional limits of 1 10 V the two layer microcantilever sensors.

B (amorphous) 0,7 0,6 6 0,5 theory 0,4 4 0,3 0,2 2 experimental 0,1 0 0,0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 -1 Raman shift (cm ) Figure 5. Amorphous boron. Bold line, FT-Raman spectrum [14]; thin line, theory [15]. The spectral position of both B–B modes agrees quite well with theoretical calculations; however, the intensity of the modes at lower frequencies is considerably overestimated by theory [15]. 5. YB66 type structures The YB66 structure group is the most complex one of the icosahedral boronrich solids.

These parameters presented in Fig. 2a–c are used for the estimation of the lower limit of the sensor dimensions which are still feasible for the reliable sensor operation. The main assumptions of the model are summarized as follows: y Nonpiezoelectric layer h2 0 h x z h1 l w a Nonpiezoelectric substrate fmax b dx qxdx qydx  dP Horizon plane 1. Only stress distribution in the clamped c cross-section of a cantilever is considered, as it is the most critical one. 2. A cantilever is allowed to expand and compress without any constraints along a y-direction perpendicular to Figure 2.

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