By Lawrence K Wang; Nazih K Shammas; Yung-Tse Hung
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Additional resources for Biosolids engineering and management
This may be done by pumping if the material is biosolids or scum or by other methods, which shall be termed long-distance hauling. Long-distance hauling includes trucking, rail transport, and barging. Ettlich (31), in developing cost formulas for transport of wastewater sludge/biosolids, made the following general observations about the comparative economics of the longdistance transportation of dewatered sludge/biosolids methods: 1. Total annual cost for railroad is less than truck for all annual sludge volumes (7500 to 750,000 yd3 [5730 to 573,450 m3 ]) and distances (20 to 320 miles [32 to 515 km]) studied with and without terminal facilities for loading and unloading sludge to the transport vehicle.
If these conditions are not met, a pump will not be able to handle sludge/biosolids at high concentrations. Special precautions are usually required to reliably pump screenings and grit. Screenings should be ground up and pumped by pumps with the ability to pass large material. Torque flow pumps are ideal for this application. Grit pumping requires special abrasion and nonclogging considerations. Both screenings and grit pumps should be easy to disassemble with quick access to the volute and impeller.
Most water eductors with reasonable water demands cannot pump solids the size of a golf ball. However, they have been successfully used to remove grit from aerated grit removal tanks and discharge the grit into dewatering classifiers. 2. Application and Performance Evaluation of Sludge and Sludge/Biosolids Pumps This section describes appropriate applications for the pumps and identifies some limitations and constraints. It covers screenings, grit, scum, sewage sludge, as well as sludge/biosolids.