Biology of Blood-Sucking Insects by M. J. Lehane (auth.)

By M. J. Lehane (auth.)

Blood-sucking bugs are the vectors of the various such a lot debilitating parasites of guy and his domesticated animals. they also are of substantial direct expense to the rural via losses in milk and meat yields, and during harm to hides and wool, and so on. So, now not strangely, many books of scientific and veterinary entomology were written. each one of these texts are equipped taxonomically giving the main points of the life-cycles, bionomics, courting to ailment and financial value of every of the insect teams in flip. i've got taken a unique process. This booklet is subject led and goals to debate the organic topics that are universal within the lives of blood-sucking bugs. to do that i've got targeting these facets of the biology of those attention-grabbing bugs which were truly changed not directly to fit the blood-sucking behavior. for instance, i've got mentioned feeding and digestion in a few element simply because feeding on blood offers bugs with specific difficulties, yet i haven't mentioned breathing since it isn't affected in any specific approach by way of haematophagy. certainly there's a subjective aspect within the selection of issues for dialogue and the load given to every. i am hoping that i have never enable my enthusiasm for specific topics get the higher of me on too many events and that the subject matter achieves an total balance.

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Biology of Blood-Sucking Insects

Blood-sucking bugs are the vectors of a few of the so much debilitating parasites of guy and his domesticated animals. they also are of substantial direct price to the rural via losses in milk and meat yields, and during harm to hides and wool, and so forth. So, no longer strangely, many books of clinical and veterinary entomology were written.

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At one extreme we have the permanent ectoparasites which are in the happy position of having food continually' on tap'. Only by accident will they find themselves more than a few millimetres from the skin of the host and the blood that it holds. At the other extreme are those temporary ectoparasites, like blackflies and tabanids, which do not remain permanently in the vicinity of the host. When these insects are hungry their first problem is to locate the host, often a difficult and complex behavioural task.

This idea is illustrated in the graph, which shows the stimulus intensity-response functions for the lactic-acid-excited (LA-exc) and lactic-acid-inhibited (LA-inh) receptors of host-seeking (a) and non-host-seeking (b) female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The dashed lines represent the summed response for the two receptors (net). 1F = 0) represents the spontaneous activity level of the receptors. In the hungry state the summed response of the receptors to the presence of lactic acid is above the spontaneous activity level, while in the fed state it is below.

3). The range over which a host animal can activate and orientate an insect, on the basis of odour alone, has been calculated for some blood-sucking insects. For the tsetse flies Glossina morsitans and G. pallidipes the maximum range for an ox is estimated to be about 90 m (Vale 1977). Oxen draw the tabanid Philoliche zonata at 80 m, but this reduces to only 31 LOCATION OF THE HOST 30 m for species of Tabanus (Phelps & Vale 1976). Calves draw a number of mosquito species at distances between 15 and 80 m (Gillies & Wilkes 1969, 1970, 1972).

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