Bioengineering Approaches to Pulmonary Physiology and by Michael C. K. Khoo (auth.)

By Michael C. K. Khoo (auth.)

As the present millennium steams in the direction of a detailed, one can't support yet glance with amazement on the very good volume of growth that has been completed in drugs in exactly the previous couple of many years. A key contributing issue to this luck has been the importation and mixing of principles and strategies from disciplines outdoor the conventional borders of clinical technology. in recent times, the main recognized instance is the cross-pollination among molecular biology and drugs. Advances pushed via this powerful mixture have spawned the imaginative and prescient of a destiny the place therapies according to gene remedy develop into standard. but, as we proceed our look for "magic bullets" within the quest to eliminate ailment, it very important to acknowledge the price of alternative less-heralded interdisciplinary efforts that experience laid a wide a part of the root of present-day drugs. In pulmonary medication, the contribution from the bioengineers (a different number of contributors cross-bred to varied levels in mathematical modeling and experimental body structure) has been higher and extra sustained than in lots of different scientific specialties. you'll element to the gigantic array of ventilators, blood-gas analyzers, oximeters, pulmonary functionality units, and breathing displays which are found in any sleek medical environment as stable facts of the winning synergy among engineering technological know-how and pulmonary medication. in spite of the fact that, one must never overlook the fewer tangible, yet probably extra vital, contributions which have been derived from mathematical modeling and computing device simulation, with out which a lot of those glossy tools do not need come into existence.

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The intent behind the present model was to incorporate most of these factors in a general model of respiratory gas exchange and control. Because there is currently no usable model of the neuronal oscillator in the medulla (but see J. Smith in this volume), a standard limit-cycle oscillator (the Fitzhugh—Van der Pol—Bonhoeffer'') has been used to represent the medullary controller. "Output" generated by the oscillator is used to activate respiratory muscles (with attention to length-tension properties) and upper airway muscles, which in Bioengineenng Approaches to Pulmonaty Physiology and Medicine, edited by Khoo Plenum Press.

The respiratory control system is obviously more complex than the linear expression in Eq. 1, and is non-linear. The system described by Eq. 1 is assumed to be excited by stochastic noise (Ui), and the system is in a steady state without exogenous noise. However, recent studies have indicated that nonlinear dynamic mechanisms underlie respiratory pattern generation, and that these mechanisms can produce variable behavior that is not stochastic^"''. Therefore, applying the ARX model to the respiratory control system inevitably involves a certain amount of estimation error, which all models have to some extent when they are applied to physiologic systems.

With a CPAP of 6 cm HjO (right panel), the airway is fully opened and breathing stabilizes—the slight irregularities are due to stochastic processes in the model. 11. Exercise Hyperpnea. As well as the traditional feedback mechanisms involving carbon dioxide and oxygen, the model includes those processes proposed by Eldridge and Waldrop-^ to be important in the genesis of exercise hyperpnea: they include rapidly acting neural mechanisms (central command and input from peripheral musculature), short-term potentiation of central neurons in the respiratory pathway, and the rise of serum [K^a] during exercise (t of 45 sec) and fall ditring recovery (t of 30 sec)'^.

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