By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
In 1974 whilst I released my booklet, organic Mechanism of Attachment, now not many pages have been required to record at the attachment units of insect cuticles. As in so much fields of study, our wisdom in this particular topic has easily exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the current day point of our wisdom, to which he has in my opinion contributed quite a bit, and a examine staff engaged on organic microtribology has steadily built, additionally. With sleek equipment of size it really is attainable to go into the constitution – functionality courting even more deeply, even right down to a molecular point, which was once impossible and a part a long time in the past. it's a renowned proven fact that, in biology, the extra refined the measuring process, the larger the success of organic primary study, and its ensuing proof. Our wisdom continues to be at a definite point till new equipment once again let a ahead jump. organic wisdom develops within the type of a stepped curve instead of linear, as mirrored within the stories conducted at the attachment units of insect cuticles.
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Extra resources for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Males of the tropical genus Euschemon have a typical frenate winginterlocking mechanism, whereas the females posses the amplexiform type. It is likely that a specialised wing-interlocking device is absent in the groundplan of Lepidoptera. It has been hypothesised that the functional 50 quadruptery was typical for ancestral groups of Lepidoptera, and that functional diptery first appeared in Glossata (Kozlov, 1988). However, since wing-interlocking devices in Trichoptera, which is the sistergroup of Lepidoptera, are similar to the jugate type (Obenberger, 1964), it is likely to assume that jugate type is a groundplan condition for Trichoptera + Lepidoptera.
Cuticles can be functionally grouped into (1) the so-called «solid» cuticle, typical for sclerites, apodems, phragmata, mandibles and claws; (2) thin arhrodial membranous cuticle, as well as, the cuticle of caterpillars; and (3) resilin-containing cuticle, from tendons of the flight muscles, springs of mouthparts, and wing articulations (Weis-Fogh, 1960; 1961). 3 Solid cuticle The lack of flexibility of the solid cuticle is highly-correlated to the amount of NaOH non-extractable protein there in, which is responsible for cross-linking in the matrix (Andersen and Barrett, 1971).
To attach themselves into the host tissues, the parasitic copepod Hatschekia pseudohippoglossi uses terminal hooks from the second antennae. In another copepod species, Trebius clidodermi, analogous structures originate from the maxillipeds. The terminal hooks of the second antennae in Achtheinus oblongatus, are additionally armoured with two rows of spines. This results in a harpoon-like design of the terminal hooks (Titar, unpublished data). The insect ovipositor is often designed as a penetrating apparatus.