By Dharam P. Abrol
The global is dealing with foodstuff situation because the becoming human inhabitants is posing a possibility to typical assets and quick forthcoming famine. within the subsequent 50 years, the worldwide inhabitants is anticipated to arrive nine billion doubling the foodstuff, feed and crop call for. Concomitantly, this case has additional irritated as a result of pollinator decline around the world leading to pollination drawback. those difficulties were extra aided and abetted by means of a scarcity of prophylactic growth within the conservation of biodiversity and elevated agricultural construction. between pollinators, honeybees are declining at alarming fee. the ecu honeybee Apis mellifera is a well-studied insect. nevertheless the Asiatic honeybee Apis cerana which has supplied mankind with precious items, conservation of typical assets and pollination of agricultural plants is comparatively little understood. This publication discusses details on assorted elements of Apis cerana biology, biogeography, copy, genetics, molecular phylogeny, interplay with different spoecies, floral assets, dance language, security from insecticides, administration difficulties, lack of genetic variety, behavioural defence, position in nutrients construction, livelihood defense and conservation concepts for shielding biodiversity and embellishing crop productivity. The compilation of this e-book is exclusive within the feel that during the context of pollinator decline over the area, conservation of this species may be a step for maintaining meals defense. The booklet can be precious to beekeepers, pollination biologists, scholars, lecturers, scientists of agriculture, animal behaviour, botany, conservation, biology, ecology, entomology, environmental biology, forestry, genetics, plant breeding, horticulture, toxicology, zoology, seed growers and seed agencies.
The writer is a widely known bee scientist, honoured with numerous nationwide and foreign awards. He has released over two hundred unique study papers, authored 10 books and visited Switzerland, Poland, South Korea,Malaysia and several international locations as specific invitee.
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Extra info for Asiatic Honeybee Apis cerana: Biodiversity Conservation and Agricultural Production
Based on essentially morphological and behavioral analyses and the aid of different genetic techniques, the classification systematic of the true honeybees has obtained great achievements in the last two decades of the twentieth century. The number of recognized honeybee species has been reduced since the descriptions of Maa (Maa 1953), because many types are now seen as subspecies (Otis 1997). D. P. V. 2013 1 2 1 Introduction The tribe, Apini, consists of only one small monophyletic genus, Apis that comprises nine honeybee species: A.
Three subclusters are discernible within this morphocluster: (a) Palawan (Philippines) and Borneo bees; (b) Malay Peninsula, Sumatera, and some Sulawesi bees; and (c) Indonesia (Java, Bali, Irian Jaya, some Sulawesi, and Sumatera) bees. We must now consider how these results relate to earlier geographically large-scale analyses. When all the mesoscale morphoclusters of Radloff et al. (2010) are compared with the new macroscale results, the only discrepancies are that, in the former: (a) the bees of the Philippines were included with those of Indonesia and Borneo and (b) the bees of Japan are now placed in the northern Asia morphocluster of the latter.
Cerana occurs in northern parts of China, the northwest of India, the north of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and in the north of Vietnam. 63 mm, respectively. A. c. himalaya The body size of this subspecies is intermediate between A. c. cerana and A. c. indica. It occurs in the east of the Himalayas from Nepal to northern Thailand. 03 mm, respectively. A. c. japonica This subspecies is endemic in Japanese temperate climates except the island of Hokkaido. This subspecies is divided into two separate ecotypes: Honshi and Tsushima.