Arabic Thought and Its Place in History by De Lacy O'Leary

By De Lacy O'Leary

Well-documented examine of the mutual impact of Arabic and Western worlds through the heart a while lines the transmission of Greek philosophy and technological know-how to the Islamic cultures. a desirable portrait of medieval Muslim notion, it illustrates commonalities with Judaic and Christian teachings in addition to issues of divergence.

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Porphyry returned to Aristotle. Indeed, he is best known to posterity as the author of the Isagoge, long current as the regular introduction to the logical Organon of Then came JambMchus (d. 330), the pupil Aristotle. Porphyry who used neo-Platonism as the basis of a pagan theology and finally Proklus (d. 485) its last great pagan adherent who was even more definitely of ; a theologian. Neo-Platonism was the system just coming tq^Jkhe forejroni J^ie^th^kristians of Alexandria began to first prominent be in contact with philosophy^ The Alexandrian Christian who endeavoured to reconcile philosophy and Christian theology was Clement of Alexandria who, like Justin Martyr, was a Platonist of the older type.

Doctrine had been century from eliminated the state church and completely Alexandrian philosophy which had been the chief By means Arian the fifth of bringing about this result, although there are indications that suspicion in some quarters. it was dominant, was viewed with Amongst the contro- which took place in the post-Nicene age the most prominent are those which concerned the person versies and these are largely questions was generally admitted that man has a psyche or animal soul which he shares with th rest of the sentient creatures, and in addition to this a spirit or rational soul which, under the influence of the neo-Platonists or of Alexander of Aphrodisias, was regarded as an emanation from the creative " spirit, the Logos or Agent Intellect," a belief which of the incarnate Christ, of psychology.

Difficult The Prophet found tasks to introduce the observance of prayer amongst the Arabs, and they do not appear very much attached to it at the present In Madina the Prophet was in contact with men whose attitude towards religion was very different and who were more in sjTngathy with the principles day. which he had learned from very much the same sources as themselves. In Madina, therefore, the Prophet added a temporal side to the spiritual work in which he had been It was not consciously a change but simply the adoption of a subsidiary task which seemed to provide a most useful accessory previously engaged.

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