Ants: standard methods for measuring and monitoring by AGOSTI D

By AGOSTI D

Numbering greater than 9 thousand defined species, ants rank one of the such a lot ample and common of insect groups—the collective weight of ants in tropical forests and grasslands may well represent up to 10 to fifteen percentage of the animal biomass. Written via thirty best ant biologists, this complete booklet describes approaches for surveying the variety of ground-dwelling ants. It introduces a standardized protocol for accumulating ant samples in any a part of the realm and for carrying out repeated sampling over the years, which permits researchers to research international and long term styles. protecting points of ant ecology and taxonomy, species identity, specimen training, and resources of sampling apparatus, this booklet offers the mandatory origin for readers from a variety of backgrounds.

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L. Moore et al. (1988) reported that overwintering egg masses and tents of the western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum, occurred significantly more often on sides of trees, or isolated trees, exposed to the sun. ╇ Surviving Variable Abiotic Conditions ╅ Fig. 10╅ ╇ Many insects, such as dragonflies, raise their body temperatures by basking. Heat€absorption is enhanced by dark coloration and orientation. D. Senter. S. (D. Shaw 1998). Other species burrow to depths at which diurnal temperature fluctuation is minimal (Polis et al.

S. Schowalter. ╇Responses to Abiotic Conditions ╅ Fig. 4╅ ╇ Seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation at sites representing major biomes. Data from van Cleve and Martin (1991). little variation in temperature, �allowing aquatic insects to continue development and activity throughout the year, even in temperate regions. Habitat conditions in aquatic biomes are influenced further by substrate structure and chemistry, by the amount and chemistry of regional precipitation, and by the characteristics of surrounding terrestrial communities, including conditions upstream.

Variable ecosystem conditions typically select for wider tolerance ranges than do more stable conditions. , Alstad et al. 1982, K. Miller and Wagner 1984, Mopper et al. 2004, Shure and Wilson 1993). Population size and the degree of genetic heterogeneity within populations affect the number of individuals that can survive altered conditions (G. Bell and Gonzalez 2009). As habitat conditions change, intolerant individuals disappear, leaving a higher frequency of genes for tolerance of the new conditions in the surviving population.

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