Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology: Volume by A. D. C. Macknight (auth.), Professor Dr. R. Gilles, Dr. E.

By A. D. C. Macknight (auth.), Professor Dr. R. Gilles, Dr. E. K. Hoffmann, Dr. L. Bolis (eds.)

Advances in Compararative and Environmental Physiology is helping biologists, physiologists, and biochemists continue tune of the huge literature within the box. offering accomplished, built-in experiences and sound, serious, and provocative summaries, this sequence is a must for all energetic researchers in environmental and comparative body structure. mobile quantity and osmolality in animals is a good studied subject and this particular quantity within the sequence offers the reader with a radical grounding during this zone of body structure. including components, the textual content discusses osmolality and quantity keep an eye on when it comes to either inorganic and natural ions which for this reason provides a very good evaluation to these operating and drawn to this field.

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At present, neither the ion pathways nor the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the secondary restoration in volume have been established. C. , Gagnon et al. 1982; Kirk et al. 1987a). How mammalian renal cortical epithelial cells respond to smaller degrees of osmotic stress is less clear. For example, as discussed elsewhere (see Chap. ), cells in isolated rabbit renal tubules maintain virtually a normal volume over a wide range of osmolalities provided that the medium concentration is altered in steps of only a few mOsmol rl and time is allowed for the cells to adjust after each step (Lohr and Grantham 1986).

In contrast, cells in the outer medulla may alter their ion contents in response to an acute increase in medium osmolarity. Following exposure to hyperosmotic sodium chloride, isolated mouse medullary thick ascending limb cells shrink initially but recover much of their volume over the next few minutes with uptake of sodium and chloride. [In contrast, cells from the cortical thick ascending limb show no secondary volume recovery (Herbert 1986a)]. This recovery may involve increased activity of the apical membrane Na-K-2CI co-transporter (Eveloff and Calmina 1986) or, in the presence of antidiuretic hormone, of basolateral Na-H and CI-HC03 exchangers (Herbert 1886a,b).

Secondary losses of potassium, sodium. chloride and bicarbonate may occur in response to cell swelling, mediated by alterations in conductances and/or co-transporters. Solute accumulation following exposure to hyperosmotic media is not seen in all epithelia. When it does occur, it may involve organic solutes and/or inorganic ions, with a variety of secondary active transporters implicated in different epithelia. Responses may reflect contributions of apiCal and/or basolateral pathways. The variety of processes used by the different epithelial preparations to stabilize cell volume tends to lend some credence to the view that volume regulation per se is an important cellular process.

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