By I. M. Yaglom
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Extra resources for A Simple Non-Euclidean Geometry and Its Physical Basis
Thrips reproductive rates may be reduced to a degree by damp growing conditions; high humidities and damp soil floors deter them, the latter by encouraging natural fungal disease control of the pupal stage or even by drowning. The drier conditions which prevail with plastic floor coverings tend to encourage thrips. Insecticidal soaps will depress thrips populations but are unlikely to eliminate them. Problems with the control of T. tabaci arose after the ending of routine broad-spectrum pesticide treatments against two-spotted spider mite and whiteflies and their replacement with biological control agents.
Persicae was discussed by Shijko (1989), who reported good control possibilities on sweet pepper. Experience suggests that A. matricariae is more effective at lower aphid densities, while A. aphidimyza is more successful when aphid numbers have built up (van Lenteren 1988). Aphidius matricariae is currently available from some commercial suppliers in Europe and is being recommended as a backup to A. aphidimyza, often at rates of one per m2 per week. Release of both parasite and predator into sweet pepper crops is a method showing signs of promise (Gilkeson 1990b).
And other aphidiid parasites were summarized by Stary (1988a). Although some aphid colonies can be reduced, elimination of the prey is unlikely by aphidiids alone, and parasitoids can themselves be attacked by hyperparasitoids, usually some time after establishment. Other aphidiids such as Ephedrus cerasicola Stary may prove useful. Ephedrus cerasicola has a more limited host range and slower development than A. matricariae, U U 26 K. D. SUNDERLAND, R. J. CHAMBERS, N. L. HELYER, AND P. I. SOPP but is more fecund and may be less susceptible to hyperparasites (Hagvar and Hofsvang 1990).